Scleroderma is characterized by small vessel injuries, immunological abnormalities, and thickening and scarring of the connective tissue. Proximal scleroderma is characterized by symmetric thickening, tightening, and induration of the skin of the fingers and the skin that is proximal to the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints. These changes may affect the entire extremity, face, neck, and trunk (thorax and abdomen Bi-basilar pulmonary fibrosis includes a bilateral reticular pattern of linear or lineonodular densities . Antinuclear antibodies are present in about 95% of patients, usually with a speckled or homogenous pattern. A nucleolar pattern is more specific to scleroderma than to others. Glucocorticosteroids are used to treat inflammatory complications such as myositis and pneumonitis. The other drugs which are used include immunosuppressants: (azathioprine), Collagen cross-link inhibitors (Penicillamine), methotrexate and other experimental drugs (interferon gamma, relaxin, and cyclophosphamide)...


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